subordinate clause or dependent clause is a part of a sentence that exists of at least one clause and at least one verb, that may be the same. There are three types of subordinate clauses: either it elaborates a noun, its content connects to the main clause, or it serves as an object as a whole.

Modifying clauseEdit

The modifying or conjunctive clause is almost always put in front of the modified noun. To indicate it no longer revolves around the main action of the sentence, it is introduced by adding c.

Temporal clauseEdit


Conditional clauseEdit


Concessive clauseEdit


Reason clauseEdit

The reason or cause/effect-clause in English starts with conjunctions such as because or since. In Hvetshrenu, this clause is embraced by c and łi. An example:

c' wøerg let łi ("because I hunted a deer")

Result clauseEdit


Comparative clauseEdit


Quoted clauseEdit

Hvetshrenu distinguishes three levels or types of quotation in a quoted clause: literal quotation, perceived quotation and hearsay. In the case of both literal and perceived quotation, the quoted clause serves as object of the action of speech.

Literal quotationEdit

Literal quotation is the most accurate type of quoting one's words and expresses what the quoted party said, almost wordly or exactly as he or she said it. It can be regarded as English's direct speech. It is not that often used in casual environment, but it is the usual type of quotation in for instance oral tradition.

A literal quote is always preceded or succeeded by a verb that expresses speaking, such as oit (to say, to tell) or aus (to ask for information).

Perceived quotationEdit

Perceived quotation is the type of quotation that expresses the quoted party's message rather than his or her words. In English, it is usually represented by indirect speech: "You said that ...", "I will ask her if ...".

Just like a literal quote, a perceived quote always has a verb of speech with it.


Hearsay is the type of quotation that has no definite third party, it is just information that the speaker has from a source other than himself or herself. In English, it can be translated by "I heard that ..." or "I believe that ...".

Hearsay is always preceded by ca and has år at the end. In the case of a longer story, this structure is usually applied to the first sentence, and the expression "ca zay år" is put at the entire end of the story. This expression is also put after a sentence if the speaker wants to soften his or her statement. In that case, it can be translated as "or that is what I heard, anyway".